The ‘Science Without Borders’ programme focuses mostly on undergraduate students, but also entails about 10,000 scholarships were for doctoral programmes – 2,500 a year. Brazil graduates about 12,000 doctoral students a year in its universities, up from 4,000 in 1998, and they go on to work mostly in the higher education sector and research (77%). Most of the degrees are obtained in Brazil’s main universities, including the state universities of São Paulo and Campinas and the federal universities of Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Sul and Minas Gerais.
In contrast to India, China and, in Latin America, Mexico and Argentina, Brazil does not suffer from a steady outflow of educated citizens. The most recent Survey of Earned Doctorates of the US National Academy of Sciences found that of 149 new Brazilian PhD graduates with temporary visas in the US, 42% intended to stay – a smaller proportion than for other Latin American countries in the region (Argentina, Mexico, Venezuela and Colombia), all with about 60% wanting to stay, or for India or China, with around 80% intending to stay.
From an article in University World News, June 1, by Simon Schwartzman of the Instituto de Estudos do Trabalho e Sociedade in Rio de Janeiro.