Robert Wagenaar, the Godfather of the Tuning initiative, has published a magnum opus called Reform! TUNING the Modernisation Process of Higher Education in Europe. A Blueprint for Student-Centred Learning. In over 500 pages, he discusses and analyses the developments in European Higher Education with “Bologna”, “ERASMUS & ECTS” and “Tuning” as key factors. He sees “Tuning” as the child of wedlock between “ECTS” and “Bologna” and concludes that while ECTS and Tuning have become norm-setting globally, “Bologna” cannot be seen as a tremendous success.
To nuance that vision, one might argue at both Tuning and Bologna have come to mean so many different things to so many different actors, that a clear attribution of observable changes in HE to either of these becomes debatable. One might also argue that ECTS is not that much more than a new wrapping to the much older credit system in American higher education and that ECTS is the vehicle through which US credits have conquered the world.
Nevertheless, the book contains a wealth of information and insights from an expert who played a significant role in shaping the developments he describes.
April 29, 2019